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52) would weaken the intellectual curiosity of the child. (See Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation). Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell introduced the Girl Guides in 1910. progressive education was the primary force that shaped the modern American system of schooling and which institutionalized this system in a form that has endured to the present day.  He was of the view that education should be a "joyous exercise of our inventive and constructive energies that help us to build up character. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (1782–1852) was a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He is especially well known for his "project method of teaching". Dewey, John. Taxpayer revolts, leading to cuts in funding for public education in many states, have led to the founding of an unprecedented number of independent schools, many of which have progressive philosophies. He is further considered by many to be the "father of modern educational science" His psychological theories pertain to education as they focus on the development of object teaching, that is, he felt that individuals best learned through experiences and through a direct manipulation and experience of objects. "Education is the process of living and is not meant to be the preparation of future living", (Dewey, 1897), so the school must represent the present life. Information presented to the student will be transformed into new forms, images, and symbols by the student so that they fit with their development and interests. Teachers in a progressive education system often sit among students at a round table embracing the Harkness Method, a way of learning developed by philanthropist Edward Harkness, who made a donation to Phillips Exeter Academy and had a vision on how his donation might be used: Harkness's thinking led to the creation of the so-called Harkness table, literally a round table, designed to facilitate interaction between the teacher and students during class.  According to Herbart, abilities were not innate but could be instilled, so a thorough education could provide the framework for moral and intellectual development. After 1900, these ideas — in particular those contributed by John Dewey — combined with European ideas to form progressivism in education today. However Montessori education returned to the United States in 1960 and has since spread to thousands of schools there. During her first experiment, which she implemented in a small elementary school as a young teacher in 1904, she noticed that when students are given freedom for self-direction and self-pacing and to help one another, their motivation increases considerably and they learn more. Pupils had equal voting rights with school staff. Though progressive education is often looked upon as a modern invention, it actually has deep roots. As schools become a means for social reconstruction, they must be given the proper equipment to perform this task and guide their students. (Cremin, 282) Based on Flexner's demand that the modern curriculum "include nothing for which an affirmative case can not be made out" (Cremin, 281) the new school organized its activities around four fundamental fields: science, industry, aesthetics and civics. John Dewey, a principal figure in this movement from the 1880s to 1904, set the tone for educational philosophy as well as concrete school reforms. , Rudolf Steiner (1869–1925) first described the principles of what was to become Waldorf education in 1907. He thought that education should be a journey of experiences, building upon each other to help students create and understand new experiences. Many educational institutions have adopted progressive education, such as The Independent Curriculum Group, a community of schools that says education should include students' "needs, capacities, and voices" as the heart of any program and that learning can be both an end unto itself and a doorway to discovery and purpose. Dewey also felt that schools at the time tried to create a world separate from students' lives. Hermann Lietz founded three Landerziehungsheime (country boarding schools) in 1904 based on Reddie's model for boys of different ages. When you examine the teaching styles and curriculum of the 19th century, you understand why certain educators decided that there had to be a better way. The five key ideas which composed his concept of individual maturation were Inner Freedom, Perfection, Benevolence, Justice, and Equity or Recompense. This was the first French mixed school, and a scandal at that time. If the child is thrown into a passive role as a student, absorbing information, the result is a waste of the child's education. Karen Graves, "The Cardinal Principles,", Barrow Street Nursery School--A private progressive nursery school in the West Village of Manhattan. When they reached college, the experimental students were found to equal or surpass traditionally educated students on all outcomes: grades, extracurricular participation, dropout rates, intellectual curiosity, and resourcefulness. According to Dewey, the curriculum in the schools should reflect that of society. They shared ideas about youth training programs. The launching of Sputnik in 1957 at the height of the cold war gave rise to a number of intellectually competitive approaches to disciplinary knowledge, such as BSCS biology PSSC physics, led by university professors such as Jerome Bruner and Jerrold Zacharias. Praise may be discouraged as a motivator. Progressive education is a response to traditional educational systems. A child's own instincts will help develop the material that is presented to them. ", Keskin, Yusuf. Co-optation: Many schools were co-opted by people who didn't believe in the original mission.  This developed the progressive education notion that students were to be engaged and taught so that their knowledge may be directed to society for a socially useful need. Hosted by Rev Bertram Hawker, who had set-up, in partnership with his local elementary school in the Norfolk coastal village of East Runton, the first Montessori School in England. He argued instead schools should encourage and respect the child's creativity. Although Montessori education spread to the United States in 1911 there were conflicts with the American educational establishment and was opposed by William Heard Kilpatrick. 17) Dewey felt that as education is a social construct, it is, therefore, a part of society and should reflect the community.
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