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Nous sommes un partenaire mondial qui offrons à nos clients les meilleurs solutions issues de notre expertise et de notre connaissance approfondie de leurs applications. It is a sacrificial device; once a fuse has operated it is an open circuit, and must be replaced or rewired, depending on its type. The device can be used to prevent a fire in a hair dryer for example, by cutting off the power supply to the heater elements when the air flow is interrupted (e.g., the blower motor stops or the air intake becomes accidentally blocked). IEC and UL nomenclature varies slightly. In the 1950s, fuses in new residential or industrial construction for branch circuit protection were superseded by low voltage circuit breakers. A fuse consists of a metal strip or wire fuse element, of small cross-section compared to the circuit conductors, mounted between a pair of electrical terminals, and (usually) enclosed by a non-combustible housing. In the United States and Canada, low-voltage fuses to 1 kV AC rating are made in accordance with Underwriters Laboratories standard UL 248 or the harmonized Canadian Standards Association standard C22.2 No. Cartridge fuse carriers are also now available … Similar appearing fuses may have significantly different properties, identified by their markings. The standard ampere ratings for fuses (and circuit breakers) in USA/Canada are considered 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 1000, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 amperes. Manufacturers can provide a plot of current vs time, often plotted on logarithmic scales, to characterize the device and to allow comparison with the characteristics of protective devices upstream and downstream of the fuse. These Edison base fuses would screw into a fuse socket similar to Edison-base incandescent lamps. Fuses for commercial or industrial power systems must have higher interrupting ratings, with some low-voltage current-limiting high interrupting fuses rated for 300,000 amperes. Ratings were 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 amperes. High rupturing capacity fuses can be rated to safely interrupt up to 300,000 amperes at 600 V AC. The resistance of the element generates heat due to the current flow. These types of fuse are used on equipment such as motors, which can draw larger than normal currents for up to several seconds while coming up to speed. Since the I2t rating of the fuse is proportional to the energy it lets through, it is a measure of the thermal damage from the heat and magnetic forces that will be produced by a fault and. The fuse is arranged in series to carry all the current passing through the protected circuit. A cable limiter is similar to a fuse but is intended only for protection of low voltage power cables. These devices are often used in aerospace/nuclear applications where replacement is difficult, or on a computer motherboard so that a shorted mouse or keyboard does not cause motherboard damage. Fuse bodies may be made of ceramic, glass, plastic, fiberglass, molded mica laminates, or molded compressed fibre depending on application and voltage class. Surface-mount technology "chip type" fuses feature few or no markings, making identification very difficult. , Edison base (left) and Type S fuses (right), An older fuse box of the type used in North America, Some companies manufacture resettable miniature thermal circuit breakers, which screw into a fuse socket. (Fuse wire is commonly supplied to consumers as short lengths of 5 A-, 15 A- and 30 A-rated wire wound on a piece of cardboard.) Automotive fuses can be mounted in fuse blocks, inline fuse holders, or fuse clips. Breguet recommended the use of reduced-section conductors to protect telegraph stations from lightning strikes; by melting, the smaller wires would protect apparatus and wiring inside the building. For example, UL 248-19 allows photovoltaic fuses to be rated up to 1500 volts, DC, versus 1000 volts under the general requirements. The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material of which the fuse is made. Filling a fuse body with sand provides additional cooling of the arc and increases the breaking capacity of the fuse. In both cases, higher rated carriers had wider pins, so a carrier couldn't be changed for a higher rated one without also changing the base. For example, fuse holders for North American class RK fuses have a pin that prevents installation of similar-appearing class H fuses, which have a much lower breaking capacity and a solid blade terminal that lacks the slot of the RK type. Element window — a small window built into the fuse body to provide visual indication of a blown element. The D fuse-system is the first generation of the screw fuse-system in the german DIN standard. Some varieties of HRC fuse include special handling features. Medium-voltage fuses may have liquid-filled envelopes to assist in the extinguishing of the arc. Low-voltage high rupture capacity (HRC) fuses are used in the area of main distribution boards in low-voltage networks where there is a high prospective short circuit current. Fuses are widely used for protection of electric motor circuits; for small overloads, the motor protection circuit will open the controlling contactor automatically, and the fuse will only operate for short circuits or extreme overload. The energy is mainly dependent on current and time for fuses as well as the available fault level and system voltage. So-called self-resetting fuses use a thermoplastic conductive element known as a polymeric positive temperature coefficient (PPTC) thermistor that impedes the circuit during an overcurrent condition (by increasing device resistance). There are many types of fuses available for a variety of applications. This process is called "coordination" or "discrimination" and may require the time-current characteristics of two fuses to be plotted on a common current basis. A maximum current that the fuse can continuously conduct without interrupting the circuit. International Electrotechnical Commission, polymeric positive temperature coefficient, edison.rutgers.edu/patents/ — U.S. Patent Office number 438305 "Fuse Block" (.pdf), http://lees.mit.edu/public/In_the_News/Electrical+Rebuilder's+Exchange.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fuse_(electrical)&oldid=988513676, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Melting of internal conductor due to heat generated by excessive current flow. Automotive fuses can be classified into four distinct categories: Most automotive fuses rated at 32 volts are used on circuits rated 24 volts DC and below. High-power fuse means that these fuses can interrupt several kiloamperes. Cartridge (ferrule) fuses have a cylindrical body terminated with metal end caps. Rated voltage should be higher than the maximum voltage source it would have to disconnect. Applications are low voltage ditribution units, where non trained persons are allowed to change the fuse-links. [clarification needed] Once current is applied, resistance and voltage drop of a fuse will constantly grow with the rise of its operating temperature until the fuse finally reaches thermal equilibrium. Where the fuses in a system are of similar types, simple rule-of-thumb ratios between ratings of the fuse closest to the load and the next fuse towards the source can be used. In this way, only the faulty circuit is interrupted with minimal disturbance to other circuits fed by a common supplying fuse. D fuse-links "gG" also protect equipments and installations against dynamic effects of high short circuit currents. The time and current operating characteristics of fuses are chosen to provide adequate protection without needless interruption. The breaking capacity is the maximum current that can safely be interrupted by the fuse. They limit and cut off unacceptable overcurrents and short circuit currents up to their nominal breaking capacity. The element must not be damaged by minor harmless surges of current, and must not oxidize or change its behavior after possibly years of service. Some vehicles use a dual 12/42 V DC electrical system that will require a fuse rated at 58 V DC.
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